Mark-to-Market Accounting (MTM)
In order to elect MTM accounting, an option trader must actually be classified as a “trader” as opposed to an “investor.” See the Trader page for further information on this delineation.
Section 475 of the Internal Revenue Code (IRC) is entitled “Mark to market accounting methods for dealers in securities”
Under IRC Sec 475(f), a person who is engaged in a trade or business as a trader in securities who elects ...
So three distinct criteria exist:
1. A trade or business must exist (see Entities for more on this topic)
2. One must be classified as a trader in securities (see Trader for more information), and,
3. One must make an election to use MTM accounting
Sec 475(f) continues ...
• [an electing person] shall recognize gain or loss on any security held in connection with such trade or business at the close of any taxable year as if such security were sold for its fair market value on the last business day of such taxable year, and
• any gain or loss shall be taken into account for such taxable year.
Thus, if the trader in securities elects to do so, he will be:
(1) deemed to have sold any security held at year end,
(2) gain or loss will be determined based on the difference between the fair market value at the close of business on the last day of the tax year and the trader’s cost basis, and
(3) that gain or loss will be recognized and reported on the trader’s tax return.
The MTM method of accounting is not a decision to be taken lightly.
It can provide a tremendous tax benefit in certain circumstances but may also result in a devastating tax burden as well. Click here to see examples of both.
Under the MTM method of accounting:
• Gains and losses are treated as ordinary gains or losses - NOT capital gains or losses
• There is an adjustment required to the stock basis of the recognized but unrealized gain or loss on stock
• Gain/income is not subject to self-employment tax
• Reported on Form 4797 Part II
Two major restrictions now disappear:
The $3000 net capital loss limitation
The wash sale rule
So much for the overview, now for the details.
The election is effective for the year for which it is made and all subsequent years unless revoked. The revocation request must be made to the IRS and is only valid if approved. We will discuss the revocation procedure below.
The election must be made by the unextended due date of the tax return for the year before the year the election is to be effective.
Let’s look at some examples which will hopefully make this clear.
Hal is actively trading stocks and believes he can generate significant income by trading, on a regular and continuous basis, the short-term fluctuations in the stock market, either by using stock or option strategies. In July 2009 he begins trading full-time.
Hal qualifies as a trader in securities but can he make an election to use the MTM method of accounting for 2009?
The answer is NO! Hal would have had to file an election by:
• April 15, 2009, or,
• Attach the election to his extension (Form 4868)
What can Hal do?
• Make an election for 2010 anytime before April 15, 2010
• Form a new entity, transfer the securities into the newly formed entity and make a MTM election for the newly formed entity by the 15th day of the third month the newly formed entity is in existence*
• Request a private letter ruling (PLR) from the IRS - not advisable
So what does the election say. Here is some sample language:
This election is attached to the tax return or extension for the tax return year before the year for which the election is to be effective, per the above examples.
In the above example, Eric has been a trader for a while. Since this is not Hal’s first year as a trader, he will need to file Form 3115 Application for Change in Accounting Method.
Also, a Section 481(a) adjustment is necessary. A Sec 481(a) adjustment is the accumulation of all adjustments arising from a particular change in accounting method in order that items of income or expense are not omitted or duplicated.
Sec 481(a) adjustments, if positive, and so elected on Form 3115, may be spread out over four years. If negative, the entire amount may be taken in the year of change.
Section 481(a) is a technical code section and a complete and thorough discussion is beyond the scope of this website. You would be prudent to seek professional tax advice.
I developed a spreadsheet you can download in order to calculate the amount of the 481(a) adjustment as well as year-end and subsequent year-end MTM adjustments.
Trader in Securities Election to Mark-to-Market
Taxpayer hereby elects under IRC Sec 475(f) to use the mark-to-market method of accounting for securities. The election will first be effective for the tax year ended [20##]. The election is made for the following trade or business: [name of trade or business, EIN of trade or business]
Revoking the MTM Election
The revocation process is exactly the opposite of the election process, except you do not have to express your desire to revoke with a timely filed election.
However, you must request permission from the IRS to revoke the election. If granted, another Form 3115 must be filed and another 481(A) adjustment made.
Once the MTM election is made on a timely filed tax return or timely filed extension, you are proverbially stuck with it. You cannot simply not file Form 3115 or use other non-compliance techniques to essentially cry “Kings X.” You may be charged penalties for willful failure to comply.
Determining whether to make the MTM election is a complicated and potentially expensive process. As mentioned above, it can result in major tax benefits or a devastating tax burden. Make sure your professional tax adviser explains these ramifications to you before you make the election.
To assist in making the decision be sure to take a look at the examples.
Download MTM spreadsheet here - Excel 2003 format. Please note, no technical support is provided with this spreadsheet.
Relief for a Late Election
Implementing the MTM Election